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The Japanese military made the decision to move from a 6.5mm infantry rifle to a more powerful 7.7mm cartridge in the 1930s, with specifications for the new rifle proposed in 1938. In response, the Nagoya and Kokura Arsenals developed new models of rifle and carbine.
What we are looking at today is one of the Nagoya (Plan #1) experimental carbines; serial number 4 to be specific. It has a variety of novel features, including:
Spring loaded buttplate for recoil reductionUnique muzzle brakeNew aperture rear sightThreaded cleaning rodNew magazine retention systemRecoil bolt in stock
These carbine, and the other experimental patterns, were tested at the Futsu Proving Ground in 1939. Elements of both designs were ultimately used to create the Type 99 adopted later in 1939 (Japanese calendar year 2599).